Thinking Schools International Growing thinking schools from the inside out

Research – Published results

Research can be found in various forms.  The Thinking Foundation has funded qualitative research and doctoral research, piloted new resources, published professional books, multi-media case studies, videos, and documentary films, all to do with ‘thinking’ – some of which are below.  Additionally research has been gathered through action research at schools as well as academic articles.

As well as published results, evidence of the success and impact of Thinking Schools can also be found on the following pages:

Impact and Benefits of TSI Approach – reports and studies from research bodies and Thinking Schools
Case Studies – from schools following a Thinking School approach
Ofsted Reports – from Thinking Schools in the UK.

Further documents, research and chapters from professional books related to a thinking process for schools can also be on the Thinking Foundation website.

Below are two documentaries from the USA on how students succeed when schools focus on the development of thinking.

Language of the Mind

 Minds of Mississippi


Published Research Results

59894_9781412998697“Pathways to Thinking Schools”
David Hyerle and Larry Alper coeditors. Corwin Press, Second Edition, April 2014

This is an edited professional book offering the theory, research, and practice of having thinking as a foundation for learning in schools around the world. The title of this book represents a declaration of what many people inside and outside of education from around the world now believe should be the central focus of education. Presented within these chapters is documentation showing how the explicit focus on thinking may become a foundation for every school, from many different vantage points and from several different countries. Read more and order online

 index“Student Successes with Thinking Maps®”
David Hyerle and Larry Alper co-editors Corwin Press, 2nd Edition, Jan 2011, Thousand Oaks, California

This unique professional book is a comprehensive documentation of the theory, practice and research behind Thinking Maps.  There are 17 chapters offering research and results, grouped into four sections: Thinking, Language and Learning, Integrating Content and Process, Whole Learning Communities and Professional Development. Read the forward by Pat Wolfe, author of Building the Reading Brain. Read more and order online

index“Visual Tools for Transforming Information into Knowledge”
David Hyerle, Author. Arthur L. Costa, Prologue Robert J. Marzano. Corwin Press, 2009, Second Edition

This is the most comprehensive book on concept mapping, graphic organizers, systems thinking, Thinking Maps®, and visual software programs. Find out why visual tools and mapping are the key tools for 21st century learning. Look at student and teacher work and review test results from around the country.  Read more and order online

Academic Research 2016:

Daniela Vandepeer is currently undertaking an Education Doctorate at Cambridge University. The following poster with the research question ‘Should Every School be a Thinking School? Exploring teachers’ and students’ perceptions of translating thinking into learning’ describes her two years journey as an EdD student to date and her research intentions:  See poster here – June 2016

Research from Singapore 2015:

Innovation and Enterprise in Singapore Schools

Creating Thinking Schools through Knowledge and Enquiry: the Curriculum Challenges for Singapore

Thinking Schools, Learning Nations’ Implementation of Curriculum Review in Singapore

Action Research

Using Process Drama in a Thinking Maps School – An action research project in a primary school in West London Summer 2014

Some Academic Articles on ‘Thinking’

Burden, R.L. and Nichols, L. (2010): Evaluating the process of introducing a thinking skills programme intot the secondary school curriculum

Burden, R.L. (2010): Ability alone is not enough: How we thinking about ourselves matters too. An introduction into Myself-as-a-Learner-Scale

Griggs, R and Lewis, H.(2013) Making thinking visible in the early years: Early Years Educator, Vol 15:6, October 2013, pp.39-44 Salisbury: Thinking is an active process, but it is not a natural function, which means it needs to be worked at – practitioners can help children by developing routines that help them to make their thoughts explicit

Hall, E. (2006): Teachers and metacognition: drawing together evidence from systematic review and action research. Paper presented at the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction: Metacognition Special Interest Group Conference, Cambridge University

Hall, E. and Higgins, S. (2004): Picking the strawberries out of the jam: thinking critically about narrative reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis Presented at the British Education Research Association conference, at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Huppert, F.A. and Johnon, D.M. (2008): Mindfulness in Schools, A Pilot Study. A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools the importance of practice for an impact on well-being.

Hu, W., Wu, B., Jia, X., Yi, X., Duan, C., Meyer, W. and Kaufman, J. C. (2013): Increasing Students’ Scientific Creativity: The “Learn to Think” Intervention Program. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47, 3–21.

Fasko, D. (2001): Education and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4), 317-327.

Mercer, N. (2013): The Social Brain, Language, and Goal-Directed Collective Thinking: A Social Conception of Cognition and Its Implications for Understanding How we Think, Teach and Learn.  Educational Psychologist, DOI:10.1080/004461520.2013.804394

Sternberg, R. J (2010): Teaching for Thinking: Ethical Reasoning. Oklahoma State University

Treffinger,D,.J. (Summer 2008 | Volume 65 ): Preparing Creative and Critical Thinkers  Creative thinking involves generating many unusual, original, and varied possibilities; critical thinking involves examining possibilities carefully, fairly, and constructively. This article describes how students can learn to use such cognitive tools as brainstorming, attribute listing, and sequencing within a systematic Creative Problem Solving framework

Topping, K.J. and Trickey, S. (2007): Collaborative philosophical enquiry for school children: Cognitive effects at 10-12 years. British Journal of Educational Psychology (2007), 77, 270 – 288.

Walters, D. Grounded practice: Merging grounded theory principles and action research to secure authentic school improvement.

Click here to see a further extended list of thinking skills research articles we have selected. Below is a sample….

What we can learn from the first digital generation: implications for developing twenty-first century learning and thinking skills in the primary grades?  by Jo Hoffman.

National Curriculum tests and the teaching of thinking skills at primary schools – parallel or paradox? by Hanneke Jones.

Thinking skills in the teaching and learning of the English language by Blanka Frydrychova Klímova.

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